Monday, March 23, 2015

   B.Sc./B.Com. Sixth Semester.
The gift of Magi                                                                                 by O. Henry
One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one's cheeks burned with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas.
There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating.
While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first stage to the second, take a look at the home.A furnished flat at $8 per week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certainly had that word on the look out for the men mendicancy squad.
In the vestibule below was a letter-box into which no letter would go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name "Mr. James Dillingham Young."
The "Dillingham" had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now, when the income was shrunk to $20,though, they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. But whenever Mr. James DillinghamYoung came home and reached his flat above he was called"Jim" and greatly hugged by Mrs. James Dillingham Young,already introduced to you as Della. Which is all very good.
Della finished her cry and attended to her cheeks withthe powder rag. She stood by the window and looked out dully at a gray cat walking a gray fence in a gray backyard.Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn't go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Many a happy hour she had spent planning for something nice for him. Something fine and rare and sterling—something just a little bit near to being worthy of the honor of being owned by Jim.
There was a pier-glass between the windows of the room.Perhaps you have seen a pier-glass in an $8 flat. A very thin and very agile person may, by observing his reflection in a rapid sequence of longitudinal strips, obtain a fairlyaccurate conception of his looks. Della, being slender, had-mastered the art.
Suddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass. Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her facehad lost its color within twenty seconds. Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length.
Now, there were two possessions of the James DillinghamYoungs in which they both took a mighty pride. One was Jim'sgold watch that had been his father's and his grandfather's.The other was Della's hair. Had the queen of Sheba lived inthe flat across the airshaft, Della would have let her hair hang out the window some day to dry just to depreciateHer Majesty's jewels and gifts. Had King Solomon been the janitor, with all his treasures piled up in the basement,Jim would have pulled out his watch every time he passed,just to see him pluck at his beard from envy.
So now Della's beautiful hair fell about her rippling and shining like a cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knee and made itself almost a garment for her. And then she did it up again nervously and quickly. Once she faltered for a minute and stood still while a tear or two splashed on the worn red carpet.
On went her old brown jacket; on went her old brown hat. With a whirl of skirts and with the brilliant sparkle still in her eyes, she fluttered out the door and down the stairs to the street.
Where she stopped the sign read: "Mne. Sofronie. Hair Goods of All Kinds." One flight up Della ran, and collected herself, panting. Madame, large, too white, chilly, hardly looked the "Sofronie."
"Will you buy my hair?" asked Della.
"I buy hair," said Madame. "Take yer hat off and let's have a sight at the looks of it."
Down rippled the brown cascade.
"Twenty dollars," said Madame, lifting the mass with a practiced hand.
"Give it to me quick," said Della.
Oh, and the next two hours tripped by on rosy wings.Forget the hashed metaphor. She was ransacking the stores for Jim's present.
She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out. It was a platinum fob chain simple and chaste in design, properly proclaiming its value by substance alone and not by meretricious ornamentation—as all good things should do. Itwas even worthy of The Watch. As soon as she saw it she knew that it must be Jim's. It was like him. Quietness and value—the description applied to both. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and she hurried home with the 87cents. With that chain on his watch Jim might be properly anxious about the time in any company. Grand as the watch was, he sometimes looked at it on the sly on account of the old leather strap that he used in place of a chain.
When Della reached home her intoxication gave way a little to prudence and reason. She got out her curling iron sand lighted the gas and went to work repairing the ravages made by generosity added to love. Which is always a tremendous task, dear friends--a mammoth task.
Within forty minutes her head was covered with tiny,close-lying curls that made her look wonderfully like a truant schoolboy. She looked at her reflection in the mirror long, carefully, and critically.
"If Jim doesn't kill me," she said to herself, "before he takes a second look at me, he'll say I look like a Coney Island chorus girl. But what could I do—oh! what could  I do with a dollar and eighty seven cents?"
At 7 o'clock the coffee was made and the frying-pan was on the back of the stove hot and ready to cook the chops.
Jim was never late. Della doubled the fob chain in her hand and sat on the corner of the table near the door that he always entered. Then she heard his step on the stair away down on the first flight, and she turned white for just a moment. She had a habit for saying little silent prayer about the simplest everyday things, and now she whispered: "Please God, make him think I am still pretty."
The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two—and to be burdened with a family! He needed anew overcoat and he was without gloves.
Jim stopped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail. His eyes were fixed upon Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.
Della wriggled off the table and went for him.
"Jim, darling," she cried, "don't look at me that way.I had my hair cut off and sold because I couldn't have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. It'll grow out again—you won't mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast. Say `Merry Christmas!' Jim, and let's be happy. You don't know what a nice—what a beautiful, nice gift I've got for you."
"You've cut off your hair?" asked Jim, laboriously, asif he had not arrived at that patent fact yet even after the hardest mental labor.
"Cut it off and sold it," said Della. "Don't you like me just as well, anyhow? I'm me without my hair, ain't I?"
Jim looked about the room curiously.
"You say your hair is gone?" he said, with an air almost of idiocy.
"You needn't look for it," said Della. "It's sold, I tell you—sold and gone, too. It's Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went for you. Maybe the hairs of my head were numbered," she went on with sudden serious sweetness,"but nobody could ever count my love for you. Shall I put the chops on, Jim?"
Out of his trance Jim seemed quickly to wake. He enfolded his Della. For ten seconds let us regard with discreet scrutiny some inconsequential object in the other direction. Eight dollars a week or a million a year—what is the difference? A mathematician or a wit would give you the wrong answer. The magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them. This dark assertion will be illuminated later on.
Jim drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table.
"Don't make any mistake, Dell," he said, "about me. I don't think there's anything in the way of a haircut or as have or a shampoo that could make me like my girl any less.But if you'll unwrap that package you may see why you had me going a while at first."
White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper.And then an ecstatic scream of joy; and then, alas! a quick feminine change to hysterical tears and wails, necessitating the immediate employment of all the comforting powers of the lord of the flat.
For there lay The Combs—the set of combs, side and back, that Della had worshiped long in a Broadway window.Beautiful combs, pure tortoise shell, with jewel ed rims—just the shade to wear in the beautiful vanished hair.They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had simply craved and yearned over them without the least hope of possession. And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone.
But she hugged them to her bosom, and at length she was able to look up with dim eyes and a smile and say: "My hair grows so fast, Jim!"
And then Della leaped up like a little singed cat and cried, "Oh, oh!"
Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held i tout to him eagerly upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection of her bright and ardent spirit.
"Isn't it a dandy, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You'll have to look at the time a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it."
Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled.
"Dell," said he, "let's put our Christmas presents away and keep 'em a while. They're too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. And now suppose you put the chops on."
The magi, as you know, were wise men—wonderfully wise men—who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise,their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the privilege of exchange in case of duplication. And here I have lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house. But in a last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the wisest. O all who give and receive gifts, such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the magi.


Waste (अपशिष्ट) Essential, Useful 
Power (शंक्ती,बल ) Weakness
Little (छोटा, लघु,थोड़ा )  Big, Much
Boon (वरदान )  curse
Gather (एकत्र करना)
Movement (गति,चाल , क्रिया,आन्दोलन)   Stationary, Constant 
Pleasant (रमणीय , मनोहर,सुखद )    Nasty , Disgusting
Forlorn (परित्यक्त, असहाय )   Powerful, Cheerful,

Make  Nouns from these words.

Spiritual---Spirituality (आध्यात्मिक ----आध्यात्मिकता)
Pagan---Paganism (गैर-ईसाई----गैर ईसाई वाद )

The Judgement Seat of Viykramaditya. By Sister Nivedita. 

Objective Questions.

1. King Vikramaditya ruled in the year 
In the year 57 before Christ 2. Such little gentle creatures they are, with such large wise eyes is said about
3. The Indian peole call twilight
4. Then the spirit of Vikramaditya will descend on me also and I shall always be a just judge !        thought 
The King
5. "Art thou, then , perfectly pure in heart, O King ?" was said by 
The last angel.

Short Questions 

1. Which king is known to be the greatest judge in history ?
Vikramaditya the king of Malwa is known to be the greatest judge in history. 
2. What attracted the attention of the shepherd boys in the playground ? 
A green mound in the middle of the playground attracted the attention of shepherd boys in the playground. 
3. What did the mound look like ? 
The green mound looked like a judge's seat. 
4. How was the cowherd boy's conduct on sitting on the mound ?
 On sitting the mound , the cowherd boy's behaviour was changed and he became grave and serious.
5. Why was the playground overturned by king's men ? 
The king wanted the judgement seat of King Vikramaditya so his men overturned the playground. 
6. What did the men find after digging the playground ? 
The men of king found the judgement seat of King Vikramaditya which was a marble slab supported by twenty five angels.
7. How many stone angels supported the Judgement Seat of Vikramaditya ?
 Twenty five stone angels supported the Judgement Seat of Vikramaditya. 
8. What happened on the hundredth day the king tried to ascend the throne ? 
On the hundredth day when the king tried to ascend the throne the last angel spoke "Art thou then , perfectly pure in heart ?".

Answer the questions in 100 words.

1. Write a paragraph on cow based on the story " The Judgement Seat of Vikramaditya" . 
Everyone in India loves and worships cows. They are very useful and precious in India. Villagers send their cows to graze in the care of the shepherds. Cows are like family members in this country. They are considered as goddesses and get respect as a mother gets it from her progeny. On some special occasions people decorate them and put handmarks on them. No one teases cows or consider them wild. These little gentle creatures got an important place in daily lives. In the evening after grazing when they go home , it makes a pretty sight. Cows had always been supposed to be a status symbol so their role in economy also is very significant. 
2. How was the king Vikramaditya's throne discovered by the shepherd boys ? 
One day a shepherd boy saw a green mound in the middle of the playground. An idea of playing game came to his mind. He ran forward with a whoop and seated himself on it. Then he cried, " I say boys, I'll be judge and you can all bring cases before me and we'll have trials". Then he straightened his face and became very grave to act the part of judge. The other boys saw the fun at once and fabricated some mock cases. The boy who had seated on the mound gave very wise answers as King Vikramaditya did in his times. Thus the throne of King Vikramaditya was discovered by the shepherd boys. 
3. How was the king Vikramaditya's throne discovered by the king and his men ?
When king heard that there was a boy who used to give decisions very wisely, he thought that definitely that boy must have sat on the throne of Vikramaditya. The king thought if he could have that throne and he would seat on it , the spirit of Vikramaditya would descend on him and he would be a good judge. So he ordered his men to discover and bring that judgement seat of Vikramaditya to his court. King's men with tools and spade came to disturb the ancient peace of the pastures. Thus the throne of King Vikramaditya was discovered by the men of king. 
4. What were the questions asked by the angels their consequence ? 
When the king was just about to sit down on the throne , he was stopped by one of the twenty five angels. That first angel asked the king, " Thinkest thou that thou art worthy to sit on the judgement seat of Vikramaditya ? Hast thou never desired to rule over kingdoms that were not thine own ? " . The king replied " No " and angel suggested king to fast and pray for another three days and the angel spread its wings and flew away. After three days when king was to sit down on the throne the second angel stopped and said " Hast thou never coveted the riches of another ? " This time also king had to say no and like first angel this angel also spread its wings and flew away in the blue. At last on hundredth day king prepared himself to sit down on the throne again he was stopped by the last angel . This last angel asked the king, "  Is thy will like unto that of a child ? if so , thou art indeed worthy  to sit on this throne". The king with great sadness said that he was not worthy for this seat. At these words the last angel flew up into the air and explained the mystery of that little shepherd boy. 
5. Describe the incident that took place on the hundredth day the king tried to ascend the throne .
On the hundredth day when the king tried to ascend the throne the last angel spoke "Art thou then , perfectly pure in heart ? Is thy will like unto that of a child ? if so , thou art indeed worthy  to sit on this throne". The king with great sadness said that he was not worthy to sit on the judgement seat of great king Vikramaditya. At these words the last angel spread its wings and flew away in the sky . This last angel opened the mystery of that little shepherd boy who was innocent and could sit on that throne and gave wise answers . 

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening   By Robert Frost. 

Whose woods these are I think I know.  
His house is in the village though;           
He will not see me stopping here            
To watch his woods fill up with snow.    
My little horse must think it queer      
To stop without a farmhouse near       
Between the woods and frozen lake    
The darkest evening of the year.            
He gives his harness bells a shake         
To ask if there is some mistake.               
The only other sound’s the sweep           
Of easy wind and downy flake.               
The woods are lovely, dark and deep,   
But I have promises to keep,                     
And miles to go before I sleep,                  
And miles to go before I sleep.                    
यह जिसका जंगल है शायद याद मुझे है उसका नाम  
और जहाँ पर उसका घर है मेरा देखा जाना ग्राम   
हित उनके यह दृश्य अगोचर 
हम दोनों है रुके वहाँ
घना खडा है जंगल आगे 
जमी पडी है पीछे झील    
चतुर्दिक आच्छादित सघन है 
घन समान हिमकण जहाँ 
बजा कर घंटी गले की 
पूछता है क्या हुआ ? 
 टट्टू कहता होगा मुझ पर  
क्या पागलपन हुआ सवार 
जो मैं आकर यहाँ रुका हूँ 
  जहाँ नही घर,दर , दीवार 
गहन सघन मनमोहन वनतरु मुझको आज बुलाते है  
किन्तु किये जो वादे मैंने मुझको याद आ जाते है 
अभी कहाँ आराम बड़ा यह मूक निमन्त्रण छलना है 
अरे अभी तो मीलों मुझको मीलों मुझको चलना है ||(कविता का हिंदी अनुवाद डॉ.हरिवंशराय बच्चन द्वारा  )

Objective Questions 

1.   The owner of woods lives in ...                Village.
2.   Stopping of the poet by the woods may be thought as ..........   Queer by the horse.
3.   "He give his harness bells a shake" 'He" stands for .....          Horse.
4.   "To ask if there is some mistake." in the given line ....   Horse wants to ask the poet. 
5.  At the end of the poem the poet wants to ......     Keep his promises. 

Short Questions 

1. What does the poet observe about the woods ?
The poet observes that the woods are being filled up with snow.
2. Where does the poet stop with his horse ?
The poet stops between the woods and frozen lake. 
3. Why does the horse give his bell a shake ?
The horse gives his bell a shake as if he wants to ask his master if  he has committed a mistake. 
4. What is the other sound that the poet hears besides horse's bell ? 
Besides horse's bell , the poet poet hears the sound of easy wind and downy flake. 
5.  What does the poet think about the woods ?
The poet, Robert Frost thinks that woods are lovely , dark and deep. 

Answer the questions in 100 words.

1.  Do you think the poem has any symbolic significance ? Give reasons. 
Yes the poem has lot of symbolic significance. As the poem is a pastoral poem, it begins as a simple composition but attains sublime thoughts and philosophical strains by the end. The image of woods is used in figurative sense and it is symbol of death and darkness. The winter season itself is a symbol of nature's inaction. In the last lines we see the poet wishes to forget himself in the beauty and darkness of the woods but his immediate duties do not allow him to do so. That's why the poet in the last line of the poem says "And miles to before I sleep..."
2.  Why does the horse give his harness bells a shake ? Describe in detail. 
"My little horse must think it queer      
To stop without a farmhouse near       
Between the woods and frozen lake    
The darkest evening of the year.   "
  These lines in the  poem show that the horse of the poet could not understand his master's behaviour so he gives his harness bells a shake to ask whether the poet has committed any mistake. The horse is very surprised by the action of his master. The place in the middle of the woods where poet's horse had to stop, there was no house near so he felt that his master had lost way to go in the right direction in the woods. As it is the coldest evening in the winter season so the poet's stopping by the woods could not be understood by poet's horse. 
3. Explain the concluding four lines of the poem. 
"The woods are lovely, dark and deep,   
But I have promises to keep,                     
And miles to go before I sleep,                  
And miles to go before I sleep.     "
     Robert Frost said " A poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom ". This poem expresses this  very sentiment perfectly. In these lines We see the poet's philosophical mood with deep thoughts . The lovely,dark and deep woods attract the poet but he does not want to ignore his immediate duties. Before death the poet wishes to keep his promises. These lines attain sublime thoughts and philosophical strains by the end. This poem has a symbolic significance.

The Cherry Tree    By Ruskin  Bond 


Match the Words.
Stem ................       part of a plant coming up from the roots.
Twig .............           Small shoot at the end of a branch.
Foliage .............      All the leaves of a tree or a plant.
Shoot .............         New, young growth in a plant.
Blossom ...........     Flowers on a fruit tree. 
Short Answers  
How did Raki distribute the  three cherries between him and his grandfather ?
Raki gave one cherry to his grandfather and he himself ate two cherries promptly .
How would the cherry seeds prove lucky ? 
The cherry seeds would prove lucky if you make it work for you.
What did Raki find one spring morning ? 
Raki found a a small twig rooted to the ground which was a cherry tree ten centimeters high. 
Why was the cherry tree so special ?
As Raki and his grandfather had grown that cherry  tree , so it was special for them. 
What does Raki think on looking at the full grown cherry tree ? 
On looking at the full grown cherry tree Raki felt like to be God. 

Answer the questions in 100 words.

What made Raki plant the cherry seeds in the ground ? 
One day Raki walked home from the Mussoorie bazaar eating cherries. When Raki reached his grandfather's cottage, there were three cherries left with he gave one cherry and ate another two. He kept last cherry in his mouth for a long time. He asked his grandfather whether cherry seeds were lucky. His grandfather replied that nothing was lucky if they put it away. Raki decided to plant that last seed in his garden where the earth was soft and yielding. He then  pressed the seed into soil with his thumb. It went right in.  
How many times was the cherry tree destroyed and how ?
When the cherry tree was half a metre high, one day during the monsoons , a goat entered the garden and ate the leaves of the cherry tree. Only the main stem and two thin branches remained. This was the first time when the tree was destroyed. Second time a woman cutting grass chopped the cherry tree and third Raki saw a hairy caterpillar eating the leaves of that tree , he removed it quickly and said it to come back when it would be a butterfly. Thus that cherry  tree was survived three times. 
Bring out the significance of sentence , "Is this what it feels like to be God ? "
One day Raki who was a six year boy planted a cherry seed in the corner of his garden. Three times this cherry tree was destroyed and survived. Raki and his grandfather were attached to this cherry tree and love it more than other trees. When the cherry became taller than Raki, He put his finger to the tip of a leaf and said to himself " Is this what it feels like to be God ? " . His this question signifies that as the God looks after every object of the nature because he himself created them , the same feeling Raki felt because he had looked after that cherry tree. 

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